Histrory of BiarozaBiaroza (Belarusian: Áÿðî́çà also Áÿðî́çà-Êàðòó́ñêàÿ, Polish Bereza Kartuska) is a town of 31 000 inhabitants (1995) in Western Belarus in Brest voblast, center of the Biaroza rayon.
HistoryThe village of Biaroza (meaning Birch) was first mentioned in 1477. In 15th century the village probably received the town charter. Between 1538 and 1600 it was an important centre of Calvinism. Soon afterwards the town became a private property of the Radziwiłł family. In 17th century the village was given to the Cartusian monks who were settled there by Lew Sapieha. In 1648 Sapieha built a fortified monastery and a palace, and the monastic order became the name-sake of the second part of the name. The monastery was also expanded and became one of the biggest such facilities in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
During the Great Northern War the monastery housed a conference held by August II of Poland and Peter I of Russia. In 1706 the fortified monastery was put under siege and then taken by assault and looted by the forces of Charles XII of Sweden. Two years later the Swedish forces looted the area again, which resulted in almost total depopulation of the town. It was also damaged by the armies of Alexander Suvorov in 1772, during the Partitions of Poland.
After the partitions, the town and the monastery were annexed by Russia. After the November Uprising of 1831 the town was captured by the Russian armies and then looted. The monastery was closed by tsarist authorities and in 1866, after the January Uprising, the whole complex was partially demolished, and the bricks were used for construction of Russian prison and barracks nearby. The baroque church was destroyed in 1868. After the uprising the town became a part of the so-called Pale of settlement and was repopulated with Jews expelled from other areas of Russian Empire. By 20th century they constituted more than 70% of the city's inhabitants. In 1871 a Warsaw-Moscow railroad was laid only 20 miles from the town, which connected the town with the nearby major cities of Brest-Litovsk and Smolensk. In 1878 the town had a marketplace, 7 streets and ca. 200 houses. Both the town and the adjoining area had approximately 5 000 inhabitants. Apart from the Catholic and Uniate churches, there was also a sinagogue, Jewish baths and a market just outside of the city limits. In 1842 a new road was opened between Moscow and Warsaw and passed through the town, which started a period of economical prosperity.
In 1917 the town was annexed by Germany and then passed to the short-lived Belarusian National Republic. The town was captured by the Red Army on January 19, 1919, in the effect of the Target-Vistula offensive. However, on February 10, 1919, the Polish Army entered the area and recaptured the town on February 14. During the Polish-Bolshevik War the town was a battlefield of two notable battles (Battle of Bereza Kartuska). After the war the town was annexed by Poland.
Following the terrorist campaign in the early 1930s and the assassination of Minister of Internal Affairs Bronisław Pieracki and the deputy head of BBWR organisation Tadeusz Hołówka, the former tsarist barracks and prison were turned into a camp of internment of both Polish rightist extremists from the ONR, Ukrainian separatists from the OUN and the members of the Communist Party of Poland.
During the Polish Defence War of 1939 the camp was closed, all of its inmates were liberated and it was turned into a Prisoner of War camp for German soldiers. Also, approximately 12 German diversants and spies were court martialled there, found guilty of espionage and high treason and executed. After the Soviet Union's entry into war against Poland, which was a result of the Nazi-Soviet Alliance, the town was captured by the Red Army and incorporated into the Belarusian SSR. After the outbreak of Nazi-Soviet War the town was captured by Germany on June 22, 1941.
During the World War II a minor ghetto was created in the town for Jews rushed there from all over the area. More than 8 000 people were killed in mass executions or starved to death by the Germans.
After the war the town was annexed by the Soviet Union and the remaining Polish inhabitants of the town were forcibly expelled. The town was rebuilt after the damages done by the World War II. Also, a minor building materiel factory was opened in the town, which led to yet another period of fast growth.
In 1991, after the dissolution of USSR, the town became part of the independent Republic of Belarus.
LandmarksAlthough the 17th century monastery has been mostly destroyed in 19th century, there are some ruins remaining. mong them are:
Historical gateway with a decorative facade
Parts of fortifications surrounding the monastery with several towers partially preserved
Ruins of the octagonal church tower
Ruins of the hospital
Several buildings later incorporated into the tsarist prison.
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Biaroza. : Places of interest | selected photos
Biaroza. Orthodox church of St. Peter and St. Paul (> 1860, 2003) Orthodox church in Bereza Photo © Ê. Øàñòî¢ñê³
Biaroza. : Lost heritage | Photo
Potomkowie Kryckich z Berezy mieszkają dziś np. w Zielonej Górze, a dokładnie w jej części będącej wsią Ochla....
Jestem wnuczką Ludmiły Kryckiej( nazwisko panieńskie ) , która urodziła się i mieszkała w Berezie wraz z rodzicami i rodzeństwem. Później rodzina przeniosła się do Polski centralnej. Pytanie do Pana Michała Płosy- czy jest Pan spokrewniony z rodziną Kryckich?Pozdrawiam :) ...
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Meldunkowa ksiega magistratu miasta w Berezie Kartuskiej, 1929...